Friday, January 8, 2021

ထိုးရတော့မည် ဆိုသော်ကြောင့်

 ထိုးရတော့မည် ဆိုသော်ကြောင့်

ကာကွယ်ဆေးကိုထိုးရတော့မည်ဖြစ်သဖြင့် နည်းနည်းလေ့လာမိခဲ့သည်။

ကာကွယ်ဆေးရာဇာဝင်တွင်  Risk % အများဆုံးကာကွယ်ဆေးဖြစ်သည်၊ စမ်းသပ်မှု အပြည့်မလုပ်၊ safety လည်းမလုံလောက်၊ နောက်ဆက်တွဲ အကျိုးသက်ရောက်မှု ပြည့်ပြည့်စုံစုံ မသိရသေးခင် အရေးပေါ် သုံးစွဲ လိုက်ရသော ကာကွယ်ဆေးဖြစ်သည်။

လက်ရှိကာကွယ်ဆေး စရင်းမှာ အောက်ပါအတိုင်းဖြစ်သည်။ ဘယ်နိုင်ငံက ဘယ်ဆေးကို ကိုယ်ကို ထိုးမှာလည်း ဆိုတာလေ့လာနိုင်သည်။

The current list of coronavirus vaccine

vaccine ဘယ်လိုဘယ်နည်း အလုပ်လုပ်လည်း ဆိုတာလေ့လာကြည့်လျှင်

coronavirus vaccine သည် mRNA-XXXX မော်လီကျုး တစ်မျိုးဖြစ်သည်၊

The coronavirus vaccine is known as mRNA-XXXX. (Moderna is mRNA-1273).  A clinical trial demonstrated that the vaccine has an efficacy rate by Percentage in preventing Covid-19.

The Coronavirus

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is studded with proteins that it uses to enter human cells. These so-called spike proteins make a tempting target for potential vaccines and treatments.

coronavirus vaccineသည် virus ​၏ spike protein gene ကို အခြေခံထားခြင်းဖြစ်သည်။

The vaccine is based on the virus's genetic instructions for building the spike protein.

Properties of mRNA

The vaccine uses messenger RNA, the genetic material that our cells read to make proteins. The molecule — called mRNA for short — is fragile and would be chopped to pieces by our natural enzymes if injected directly into the body.  There is a technology to protect the vaccine and release the mRNA, and different maker companies may use different technology. It is an important part of the formula. To protect the vaccine, Moderna wraps the mRNA in oily bubbles made of lipid nanoparticles.

Because of their fragility, the mRNA molecules will quickly fall apart at room temperature. Most of the vaccine will need to be refrigerated shipped and stored at low temperature (–20°C (– 3°F) to –1°C) depended on formula. It should be stable for up to six months.

A Cell and Vaccine

After injection, the vaccine particles bump into cells and fuse to them, releasing mRNA. The cell's molecules read its sequence and build spike proteins. The mRNA from the vaccine is eventually destroyed by the cell, leaving no permanent trace.


Some of the spike proteins form spikes that migrate to the cell's surface and stick out their tips. The vaccinated cells also break up some of the proteins into fragments, which they present on their surface. The immune system can then recognize these protruding spikes and spike protein fragments.

  ခုခံသူ နဲ့ ကျုးကျော်သူ

The Antigen and Intruder

When a vaccinated cell dies, the debris will contain many spike proteins, and protein fragments, which can then be taken up by a type of immune cell called an antigen-presenting cell. The cell presents fragments of the spike protein on its surface. When other cells called helper T cells detect these fragments, the helper T cells can raise the alarm and help marshal other immune cells to fight the infection.



Other immune cells, called B cells, may bump into the coronavirus spikes on the surface of vaccinated cells, or free-floating spike protein fragments. A few of the B cells may be able to lock onto the spike proteins. If these B cells are activated by helper T cells, they will start to proliferate and pour out antibodies that target the spike protein.

Fighting the Virus

The antibodies can latch onto coronavirus spikes, mark the virus for destruction and prevent infection by blocking the spikes from attaching to other cells.

Killing and Clear the Virus

The antigen-presenting cells can also activate another type of immune cell called a killer T cell to seek out and destroy any coronavirus-infected cells that display the spike protein fragments on their surfaces.

Memorizing the Virus

Most of the vaccine requires two or three injections, given days apart ( 14, 28, 30, 45 days), to prime the immune system well enough to fight off the coronavirus. But because the vaccine is so new, researchers don't know how long its protection might last. Moderna's vaccine requires two injections, given 28 days apart.

It's possible that the number of antibodies and killer T cells will drop in the months after vaccination. But the immune system also contains special cells called memory B cells and memory T cells that might retain information about the coronavirus for years or even decades.

Moderna's vaccine

Refer to Sosegado, ISPE, CDC, Moderna  (Jonathan Corum and Carl Zimmer)